Phil Bonner, 1982, “The Transvaal Native Congress 1917-1920: The Radicalisation of the Black Petty Bourgeoisie on the Rand” (‘Africa Perspective’ version)

Phil Bonner, 1982, “The Transvaal Native Congress 1917-1920: The Radicalisation of the Black Petty Bourgeoisie on the Rand,” Africa Perspective (first series), 20: 41-62.

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Outside the Pass Office - From Bonner - 1982 - Africa Perspective

South Africa, and South African anarchism, through West African eyes [1997]

South Africa’s anti-apartheid struggle and unions (both strengths and limitations), and South African anarchism and syndicalism, were mentioned several times in Sam Mbah and IE. Igariwey’s 1997 classic text, African Anarchism: the history of a movement (See Sharp, Tucson, USA). The authors, Nigerian militants, highlighted the South African movement as one of the oldest and most important in Africa (not much was known of the time, at least amongst English-speakers, of the very important currents that had existed in North Africa, or impacts elsewhere in the continent). The 1990s South African movement, in turn, was deeply impressed by the then-1,000 member anarcho-syndicalist Awareness League in Nigeria, of which Mbah and Igariwey were leading lights; the League joined an anarcho-syndicalist international, the International Workers Association, in 1996, a body claiming direct descent from the 1922 “Berlin” international set up after anarchists and syndicalists broke ties with the Communist International / Comintern. Mbah, sadly, passed away from heart problems in late 2014.

From African Anarchism:

Chapter 1: What Is Anarchism?

“Anarchism as a social philosophy, theory of social organization, and social movement is remote to Africa — indeed, almost unknown. It is underdeveloped in Africa as a systematic body of thought, and largely unknown as a revolutionary movement. Be that as it may, anarchism as a way of life is not at all new to Africa, as we shall see. The continent’s earliest contact with European anarchist thought probably did not take place before the second half of the 20th century, with the single exception of South Africa. It is, therefore, to Western thinkers that we must turn for an elucidation of anarchism.

Anarchism derives not so much from abstract reflections of intellectuals or philosophers as from the objective conditions in which workers and producers find themselves. Though one can find traces of it earlier, anarchism as a revolutionary philosophy arose as part of the worldwide socialist movement in the 19th century….”

Chapter 3: Anarchistic Precedents in Africa

“As for outright anarchist movements, there have existed and still exist anarchist groups in South Africa — notably the Anarchist Revolutionary Movement in Johannesburg, and the Durban-based Angry Brigade [this was apparently one of the incarnations of the Durban anarchist movement that later ended up in the Workers Solidarity Federation and in Zabalaza Books — SAAHSA]. South Africa’s pioneer anarcho-syndicalist organization, however — known as the Industrial Workers of Africa — Continue reading

LACOM/ SACHED (1989): “Social Organisation and Black Workers in South Africa: 1914-1921”

Social Organisation and Black Workers in South Africa: 1914-1921

cover_of_debates_in_sa_labour_history__small.jpgThe following selection is from Debates in South African Labour History, a booklet published in 1989 by SACHED in Durban. It focuses on the syndicalist International Socialist League and the syndicalist Industrial Workers of Africa in the late 1910s.

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Rare: Hammond, 1997, “The International: South Africa’s first revolutionary paper”

Angie Hammond, May 1997, “The International: South Africa’s first revolutionary paper,”  Socialist Worker (South Africa) no. 50.

A rare article.  It provides a positive appraisal of the South African revolutionary syndicalist International Socialist League’s weekly, The International.  The view that The lnternational “united around it principled socialists whose commitment to the classical Marxist tradition” is not too convincing, but the article is worth reading. Socialist Worker was produced by the International Socialists of South Africa (ISSA), these days called “Keep Left.”

Hammond later did an Honours thesis on The International  at the University of Cape Town, but no copies seem to have been kept. Anyone who can provide a copy, let us know!

Click on picture for the PDF Hammond - The International (Socialist Worker SA 1997)

 

Syndicalism on the Shopfloor: the Denver Shop-Stewards Strike, Transvaal, November-December 1919 – E.A. Mantzaris, February 1981

Syndicalism on the Shopfloor: the Denver Shop-Stewards Strike, Traansvaal, November-December 1919, E.A. Mantzaris

Syndicalism on the Shopfloor: the Denver Shop-Stewards Strike, Traansvaal, November-December 1919 by E.A. Mantzaris

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This paper by Evan Mantzaris provides a critical chronicle of a strike by radical white metalworkers at the Denver Engineering Works on the Witwatersrand, organised through a workers’ committee. This was linked to the syndicalist International Socialist League, which had became interested in promoting a rank-and-file “shopstewards and workers committee” movement in the existing (white) unions following a visit by militant Bill Andrews to the UK. The committees were envisaged as a step to the inter-racial revolutionary One Big Union, complementing independent syndicalist unions amongst workers of colour

(FOR MORE on these developments, see Lucien van der Walt’s 2007 PhD or his recent paper in “Anarchism and Syndicalism in the Colonial and Postcolonial World 1970-1940”, Brill 2010).

Syndicalists in South Africa, 1908-17 – Baruch Hirson, November 1993

Syndicalists in South Africa, 1908-17 by Baruch Hirson

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The following 1993 text by the late Baruch Hirson, South African Trotskyist, provides some insight into the South African syndicalists of the early twentieth century. A reader can quibble over the focus on Archie  Crawford and Mary Fitzgerald (whose ideas were always rather mixed), as well as regret the closing in 1917 (many of the most important developments took place in the late 1910s). But credit must be given where credit is due: Hirson played an unmatched role, over many years, in recovering the history of South African left traditions ignored or caricatured in the South African Communist Party and academic accounts. Although his interest was in the Communist Party and the Trostkyists that emerged subsequently, his work also touched on the anarchist and syndicalist tradition, as this interesting paper shows. Continue reading

The Indian Tobacco Workers Strike of 1920, Natal – E.A.Mantzaris, 1983

The Indian Tobacco Workers Strike of 1920: A Socio-Historical Investigation by Evangelos A. Mantzaris

The Indian Tobacco Workers Strike of 1920: A Socio-Historical Investigation by Evangelos A. Mantzaris

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This paper by Evan Mantzaris deals with elements of the Indian trade unionism in Natal, South Africa, in the late 1910s and 1920s. These were events in which Indian syndicalists like B.L.E. Sigamoney of the (syndicalist) Indian Workers’ Industrial Union and (syndicalist) International Socialist League, along with white syndicalists, like Bill Andrews and David Ivon Jones, played an important role. Besides union work, the League’s members promoted the idea of workplace ‘soviets’ with an eye on occupations and take-overs.

SOURCE: Mantzaris, Evangelos. A. 1983. ‘The Indian Tobacco Workers Strike of 1920: A Socio-Historical Investigation’. Journal of Natal and Zulu History, VI, 115–125.